lunedì 9 maggio 2016

Gaza : guerra tra generali e politici israeliani per la guerra di Gaza del 2014

 Sintesi personale



Ai primi di maggio, circa 40 ufficiali israeliani hanno ricevuto la bozza di un rapporto segreto del  controllore di Stato Joseph Shapira. La relazione si è incentrata sulla gestione della guerra a Gaza del 2014. Nel giro di un giorno  alcune elementi della relazione sono arrivati alla stampa, fomentando la guerra tra  la leadership politica e militare del paese. Ognuno  ha attaccato tutti gli altri . Questo accade  quando un esercito enorme, ben addestrato e ben equipaggiato trascorre 51 giorni arrancando contro un piccolo e assediato gruppo terroristico, ancora in grado di sparare razzi contro Tel Aviv fino alla fine della guerra .Contemporaneamente  tutti si chiedono quando il prossimo round di violenza scoppierà a Gaza. Lo scambio di fuoco tra Israele e Hamas è iniziato nelle ultime due settimane. Le  Forze di Difesa Israeliane (IDF) hanno  compiuto progressi significativi nella ricerca dei tunnel  e questo potrebbe causare  il conflitto 
Nella guerra del 2014 Israele ha causato notevoli danni e distruzione sulla Striscia di Gaza, ma anche subito 72 perdite (67  sono  soldati)  e ha evidenziato difficoltà a intraprendere azioni efficaci contro Hamas, che ha continuato a sparare razzi fino all'ultimo momento della campagna. Per la prima volta  Hamas è riuscito a colpire Tel Aviv   costringendo Ben Gurion International Airport a chiudere per due giorni. L'IDF era riluttante ad occupare Gaza  e le operazioni per neutralizzare i  tunnel sono state lanciate solo dopo equivoche decisioni da parte del Governo .
Il controllore di stato  affronta tutti questi problemi , critica le prestazioni della IDF  e la  leadership politica .
La maggior parte della critica è rivolta all' ex capo di stato maggiore Benny Gantz, ma anche i servizi segreti non escono pulita. Il " tunnel  sorpresa " è considerato un fiasco clamoroso. Le forze di intelligence non sono riusciti a riconoscere la portata del problema in tempo, i membri del Governo  non sono stati aggiornati   e l'IDF non ha sviluppato un metodo efficace di lotta contro i tunnel, scegliendo l'improvvisazione durante tutto il combattimento.
La relazione  presenta Israele   confuso, indeciso e riluttante.
Come un alto funzionario della sicurezza israeliana ha confidato ad Al-Monitor in condizione di anonimato, "Se i dati sul numero di missili e proiettili sparati durante l'operazione venissero resi pubblici , tutti sarebbero inorriditi." Dal momento che non aveva altra soluzione, Israele ha usato una quantità enorme di JDAM (JDAM) ,bunker buster, nel tentativo di distruggere i tunnel.,circa 400 carri armati hanno  sparato enormi quantità di proiettili  quasi esaurendo le riserve.
"Cosa sarebbe successo se avessimo dovuto affrontare  una vera e propria guerra e non questa schermaglia locale a Gaza?" Un alto ufficiale israeliano, ora in pensione, ha detto ad Al-Monitor a condizione di anonimato nell'agosto del 2014 . In una conversazione con al-Monitor  il capo del Mossad Meir Dagan   aveva espresso lo shock per i risultati , " Una piccola organizzazione terroristica scava gallerie  da anni.Lo sappiamo ,ma non diamo alcuna risposta . Ad un certo punto, alcune persone hanno iniziato a indagare, avvicinandosi alle risposte . Ciò è 'inquietante. "
Il primo ministro Benjamin Netanyahu ha risposto  con un assalto full-out, mentre i suoi più stretti collaboratori si sono affrettati a rilasciare un attacco anonimo  contro il controllore di stato
Netanyahu  originariamente pensava che la maggior parte della  relazione  fosse centrata sulle prestazioni del IDF e in particolare sull'agire di alcuni generali . Per  questo l'aveva accolta con favore .Ora Avigdor Lieberman  sta utilizzando tale rapporto contro Netanyahu  che , a sua volta, si scaglia contro Liberman. " come chiariscono alcuni funzionari della Likud 
L'unica persona a mantenere il silenzio è il ministro della Pubblica Istruzione Naftali Bennett- Tutte le fonti concordano sul fatto che la  relazione elogia Bennett per le sue azioni,  così, egli sta lasciando  che tutti gli altri litigano e ne gode



Leaked Gaza war report sparks 'war of generals' in Israel

In early May, some 40 top Israeli officials received the draft of a secret report by State Comptroller Joseph Shapira. The report focused on Operation Protective Edge, which jolted Israel out of its tranquility in the summer of 2014. Within a day, certain sections of the report were leaked to the press, instigating all-out warfare among the country’s political and military leadership. Everybody was attacking everyone else: The prime minister and the minister of defense lashed out against the state comptroller, members of the former Cabinet attacked members of the current Cabinet, generals challenged generals, and Yisrael Beitenu head Avigdor Liberman had harsh words for everyone. That is what happens when an enormous, well-trained and well-equipped army spends 51 days plodding along against a small and besieged terrorist group, which was still able to fire rockets at Tel Aviv up until the very last moments of the campaign.
SummaryPrint The partially leaked state comptroller report of the 2014 Protective Edge operation triggered political clashes and also a war of mutual accusations amid IDF generals.
Author
TranslatorDanny Wool
It doesn’t help that all of this is happening at the same time everyone is wondering when the next round of violence will break out in Gaza. Exchanges of fire between Israel and Hamas have started up again over the last two weeks, as the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) makes significant progress in finding a solution to the attack tunnel problem. In the past few weeks alone, the new technology developed by the IDF was able to detect two tunnels that penetrated Israeli territory. Israel now believes that additional tunnels will be detected soon, denying Hamas its underground front. Until now, this was considered its leading strategic asset and the only advantage it had over the IDF’s capabilities. Given the current situation, there is concern that even though Hamas is far from regaining the strategic capabilities it had before Operation Protective Edge, circumstances could cause both sides in the conflict to descend into another round of fighting much earlier than originally anticipated, perhaps even this summer.
Operation Protective Edge is hardly considered an Israeli success story. While it is true that Israel imposed considerable damage and destruction on the Gaza Strip, it also suffered 72 casualties (67 of them soldiers). It had a hard time taking effective actions against Hamas, which continued firing rockets until the very last moment of the campaign. For the first time since it was founded, Hamas had managed to strike at Tel Aviv, shutting down the otherwise tranquil metropolis for many long weeks and even causing Ben Gurion International Airport to close for two days. Yet even when faced with all of this, the Cabinet had a hard time making decisions. The IDF was reluctant to occupy Gaza, and operations to neutralize the tunnel system were only launched after long equivocations and at a steep cost.
The state comptroller tackled all of these issues as if he had come across the mother lode. Drafts of reports by the state comptroller are barred from publication by law. In the sections that leaked from this draft, the state comptroller is not only extremely critical of the IDF’s performance, he is also very critical of the political leadership and the decision-makers.
Most of the criticism is directed at former Chief of Staff Benny Gantz, though the intelligence services don’t come out clean either. The “tunnel surprise” is considered a resounding fiasco. The intelligence forces failed to recognize the extent of the problem in time, the members of the Cabinet were not updated and failed to study the issue, and the IDF did not develop a method to fight against the tunnels. Instead it chose to improvise all throughout the fighting.
The draft report presents Israel as confused, indecisive and reluctant. Almost all of the prognoses that the chief of staff reported to the Cabinet fell apart in real time. Furthermore, the prime minister kept vital information from his ministers, including the state of munitions supplies, throughout the fighting.
As one senior Israeli security official confided to Al-Monitor on condition of anonymity, “If data on the number of missiles and shells fired during Operation Protective Edge was released to the public, everyone would be horrified.” Since it had no other solution, Israel used an enormous amount of JDAM (Joint Direct Attack Munition) bunker busters in an effort to destroy the tunnels. The system failed, but Israel had already used up a significant part of its stockpile, which it had accumulated for other, more worthy strategic purposes. Four tank brigades from the regular army (about 400 tanks) that participated in the campaign fired vast amounts of shells, almost depleting their stockpiles.
“What would have happened if we had been faced with a real war, and not this local skirmish in Gaza?” one senior Israeli officer, now retired, said to Al-Monitor on condition of anonymity, right after the operation ended in August 2014. In a conversation with Al-Monitor shortly after Operation Protective Edge, the late Mossad chief Meir Dagan expressed shock at the outcome, “We are being schooled by a tiny terrorist organization. They’ve been digging tunnels for years. We know that, and yet we didn’t plan for it or prepare a response. At one point, we were the people who initiated and investigated and came up with responses. Now it is them. It’s disturbing.”
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu responded to the leaked draft with a full-out assault, while his closest aides were quick to release an anonymous attack on the state comptroller, reportedly labeling him as “not serious.” What Netanyahu seems to have forgotten was that he pushed for Shapira to be selected for the position and that Shapira was even interviewed by both Netanyahu and his wife at their residence in Jerusalem before he even took office.
Netanyahu backed away from his initial response just one day later when it became clear that the report’s criticism of the political leadership was not as assertive as originally thought and that most of its focus was on the IDF’s performance. It was only at this point that Netanyahu's associates actually started praising the draft report. A commotion erupted in the IDF when Maj. Gen. Yom Tov Samia, former chief of the Southern Command, lashed out against the way the IDF functioned during the military operation. His comments were met with an indignant public response by Maj. Gen. Sami Turgeman, who was chief of the Southern Command at the time of the operation.
Politically, the commotion caused by the draft report is being used by Knesset member Avigdor Liberman to continue his attacks against Netanyahu’s image as a security expert. Netanyahu, on his part, also aims his attacks personally at Liberman. “The closest thing to a bullet that ever came whizzing past his ear was a tennis ball,” Likud officials are now reportedly saying about the former foreign minister, while noting that Liberman hardly even bothered to attend Cabinet meetings.
The only person to maintain his silence is Minister of Education Naftali Bennett, who was a member of Cabinet both during Operation Protective Edge and now. He was the first person to recognize the threat posed by the tunnels as requiring immediate attention, and he even pressured the Cabinet to approve such actions toward the end of the operation. All sources agree that the draft report praises Bennett for his actions, a fact that he will certainly use to his advantage once the whole report becomes public. Meanwhile, he is letting everybody else squabble over the report’s findings and enjoying every minute of it.

 

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